An energy absorbing factor that in conjunction with the natural frequency determines the limit of frequency response and the response time characteristics of a transducer. In response to a step function of the parameter a periodic (underdamped) system oscillates about the voltage level before stabilizing at its final steady output; an aperiodic (overdamped) system comes to the final steady output without overshooting; and a critically damped system is defined as one that is at the point of changing from a periodic to a aperiodic system.